You can compare the Nigerian Igbo design &
the quilt pattern done in US by my family.
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I will post an answer. TRK
I will post an answer. TRK
|Hidden In Plain View|
If you were left with questions after reading Doubleday’s
(a subsidiary of Random House Publishing Companies) 1999 release of the book,
“Hidden in Plain View” by Dr. J. Tobin and Dr. R. Dobard, this book will answer
It is the first book done by the late, California School
administrator, Dr. Ozella McDaniel-William’s family. This is the presentation
of four prior generation’s collective research, memories and estate holdings.
In Keeper of the Fire, they share their age-old fabrics of internationally
gathered documentation, reports, letters and photos.
Few Americans read the
exhaustive amount of multi-lingual sources preserved for centuries by African, Spanish,
Portuguese, French, British, Dutch and American slavers. There are drawings,
diaries, books, reports and artifacts collected for centuries by traders, missionaries,
explorers and professional associations. This tome documents books and the
locations of archives and museums used in their research. Here, they
piece a sampler quilt for you. Using common sense as the binding, primary
sources the stitching, gathering West African metallurgy sciences, mathematics,
textile secret symbols, ciphered knots, symbolic colors and music used as
languages, Mrs. Teresa R. Kemp exposes historical distortions and omissions.
William Dover Jenkin's 1859 Will
Never wavering, using their
African-American family’s abolitionist legacy of God’s generational
faithfulness, they share the belief, they should have life and life more
abundantly. Though the family’s research still continues, what they do know is
that the Farrows had at least two owners that died. In 1844, having no children
the first owner of the Dover Hall Plantation, Thomas Dover, willed his entire
estate (with enslaved people) to his beloved nephew, William Dover Jenkins.
William Dover Jenkins, the
second Dover Hall Plantation proprietor, was an absentee owner six months of
the year in coastal Georgia due to the malaria and yellow fever epidemic. It
had spread due to the prolific mosquitoes’ bites being deadly.
second “owner” died in 1859 and they were willed to the “widow and children of
Dr. Richards but in no way were they subject to the debts of the said Dr.
Richards”. Mrs. Teresa Kemp believes that knowing he would not be afforded he same
freedoms, Peter sought his freedom and his future wife’s Eliza.
The surviving Glynn County
Georgia wills show that William Dover Jenkins continued to provide for a group
of former slaves by the sale of another group of people identified in the will.
The Dover Hall plantation’s owner had “former slaves who were now living free in
Freetown, Massachusetts”. There are over fifty probated documents in the UGRR
Secret Quilt Code Museum’s Plantation Document Collection.
Rev. Peter Farrow Jr.
Serena’s great great-grandparents survived under-reported cruel experiences during slavery to have a son in 1850’s. (According to four conflicting U. S. Census records, Peter Farrow Jr. was born in December of 1851, 1857 or 1858). Using the traditional Igbo naming conventions, he was named after his father. As UGRR abolitionist they assisted people from their extended families to freedom.
|Nora Farrow McDaniel|
(Peter Farrow's daughter)
QUILT CODE ISN'T DOCUMENTED BY FIRST HAND ACCOUNTS:
QUILT CODE MATERIALIZED IN 1990’s DURING REVIVAL OF FOLK ART:
Mrs. Ozella McDaniel Williams copyrighted the use
of the Codes for use in slave escapes in 1950. It was done six years after Rev. Peter Farrow,
grandfather, son of the abolitionist died. Our family has told the story for over ninety years in the markets of Charleston, SC where we have sold baskets, jewelry, quilts and lemonade for decades.
|The late Dr. Howard L. Wison & daughter Mrs. Teresa R. Kemp|
at Rev. John Rankin's North Star Safe House on 1999 UGRR Tour.
The late Dr. Howard, Calvin Kemp and families continued the tradition of documenting the family legacy in 1999 by videotaping the passing down the codes.
The families took a trip from Sullivan Island, SC to Canada. They sewed the patterns, kept journals, photographed UGRR sites and interview historians all they way.
Mrs. Serena Wilson and their daughter, Mrs. Teresa Kemp re-applied and received the United States Copyrights in the late 1990’s. Mrs. Kemp still owns the U. S. Copyright for the use of the quilt (African) patterns used as maps and messages on the UGRR.
INCH TIED KNOTS:
Knots were used
on quilts similar to beads (or knots) in a Catholic rosary, it is nothing new. When used by millions of people worldwide as a
point of Godly contact, prayer and a memory tool communicating with an
invisible God it is not seen as a pagan ritual. The knots were used as a way of
making protection, strengthening their courage as well as marking the longitude
and latitude of coordinates of a map done in textiles.
IT’S ONE FAMILIES ORAL HISTORY:
centuries the Bible, Koran and Torah were committed to memory sometimes by
song, paintings, sculpture, monoliths or in textiles and orally passed down. Each method of recording
are accepted worldwide a communication. Africa has written or textile languages
For centuries the Bible, Koran and Torah were committed to memory sometimes by song, paintings, sculpture, monoliths or in textiles and orally passed down. Each method of recording are accepted worldwide a communication. Africa has written or textile languages for centuries.
We are baffled why some of the American quilting, a few
scholarly and history communities were confounded with the idea of maps,
messages or a story depicted in a quilt. We are not the only family who worked
using textile, animal skin maps or symbols. There are many examples worldwide
still in existence and we all still speak a textile language explained in the
CODE VERSIONS DIFFER:
The understandings, versions, words do differ. The methods of escape,
even if planned had to be modified due to weather, dangerous conditions, and
plans being revealed. The Underground Railroad was a dynamic organization and
changed by location and conditions of the passengers and conductors.
Often African words and
beliefs don’t exist in English languages and have gone through hundreds of
modifications and interpretations over the thousands of years (1042 B.C.) they
have been in use. Often methods of escape were cancelled, adapted regionally, changed or modified
to fit the dynamic life or death nature of its use.
|Body Map documented by Freidrich Ratzel 1880s|
DID THEY REMEMBER THE CODES:
Even if you
travel from America to Europe and back, you do not forget your language, what
style of dress, foods you eat, trade and employment skills you and your
neighbors share. The Igbo people historically have many layers of traditional
groups of title holders, craft guilds, secret societies and religious leaders
that have secret symbols cut into their faces, backs or stomachs. Historically
the traditional patterns were called Ichi
or Uli marks. In America they are seen as “country marks in the run-away
slave advertisements in colonial newspapers. These could never be forgotten or removed. Their
hair was intricately styled in unique designs that are like a signature.
Their bodies genetic make-up, (height, muscular development, features), skills, Uli and Ichi markings, distinct hair styles corroborated non-verbal identifiers. Even extended families that intermarried, celebrated masquerades, annual festivals or returned the remains of deceased Igbo family members could recognize members of their religions, clans, titled status or positions held regionally, locally and nationally. Now Ms. Kemp can even recognize the regalia as Igbo people could, even when they were brought to the Americas.
|Chart of markings of the |
historical OYO Nigerian group
These identifiable individuals or groups of peoples traveled for centuries, to other countries through migration, trading and exploration. They often became nomads following grazing animals from areas that flooded consistently. Some of the Igbo groups wanted to live by bodies of water and longed for the sea faring lifestyle. Others were relocated by centuries of forced slavery. They could recognize one another historically and even today. Mrs. Kemp has included some of the historic photos and escaped slave advertisements that refer to these symbols Ichi and Uli markings in the book.
Read this book to understand how many of the Awka traditions the African American family passed down to Mrs. Kemp. The passing of this secret legacy of the Awka (Nigerian) metal smith’s made the Farrow’s Underground Railroad Quilt Code possible. Today, you can get your questions answered while viewing this guarded history, passed down five generations to Mrs. Kemp. See the African photos and surviving of the traditional patterns and symbols still in use in Africa today. Quilting and hand dyed textile construction is not an “American Civil War Era phenomena”. It is ancient, sacred and a worldwide necessity for both survival, comfort and even show of wealth. It is not a Black or White thing, quilting is universal. Textile or animal skin maps are as ancient as ships or black smithing. Everything Igbo is tied to God and nothing is done without Chukwu (Chukwu is the Igbo name for their belief one supreme God).
DID AFRICAN IGBO METAL SMITHS USE THE LOST WAX PROCESS?
This book shares a glimpse
into how Igbo Awka’s coded smithing guild's lost wax process technique, secret language
traditions were not even understood by Igbo and Awka residents. The proof of their
abilities were discovered in Nigeria, West Africa and then brought to worldwide,
along with the diverse technical expertise of the kidnapped people. We explore agricultural knowledge, (Rice,
sugar cane, indigo, tobacco, cotton, fruit and vegetable cultivation),
knowledge of plant based indigo processing, weaving, pottery and other of
resources of the Igbo people.
Awka is the word for both the metalsmith and the town or origin
Coded communications were
not unique to this family. Even though the Farrow family were free in Georgia
and South Carolina prior to emancipation, even North and Southern Civil War
military units had coded language and plans in order to be successful. We have identified over 38 different
Underground Railroad (UGRR) methods of escape used by individual abolitionist,
anti-slavery societies, religious groups and conscientious sympathizers. We
highlight earlier slavery and mention the Underground Railroad when the Spanish
were in control prior to British dominance of American Colonies.
IGBO PEOPLE HIGHLY REGARD SERVICE AND COOPERATION:
It is this spirit of “never
harming a traveler that sojourns among you”, that can be summed up in the
appearance of the Igbo following the Levititical Code. Council's of elders
administered decisions and settled inter-village disputes with input from the
collective in ordering daily life. Their decision could modify or govern
village interactions, arranged marriage, circumcision, the atonement for sin
and eradication of abominations with ritual sacrifice. For disputes that could not be settled at the village level there were religious
agents of the Nri Kingdom that traveled and represented the interest of the Eze
Nri. The relationship of Nri and Akwa is also discussed to add clarity of the
levels of secrecy in Igboland.
Teresa Kemp shares her
American family’s continued value of elders, service to their country and
community. We have records of disaster relief, burial societies, organizing
festivals and organizational meetings through generations in the civil rights,
military and educational arenas. Whether in Free Masons, Eastern Stars, Elks,
collegiate sorority and fraternal associations, alumni associations or
religious service as pastors, evangelist, missionaries or Sunday school teacher’s.
There are records of each generation in this family working to make the
community a safe, nurturing place.
Age is not excuse for
idleness. Everyone young and old, have a critical job to perform and was
expected to carry it out with excellence. Some were prayer intercessors, greeters
or ushers at programs and hugged and greeted each guest. Some have strength, a
few have tools or knowledge, others have money, still others
transportation. When combined as a
community team everyone benefits. I have learned, even if you do not need
assistance now, sooner or later it will be your turn to benefit.
HOW DID MRS. KEMP’S FAMILY PASS QUILT CODES TO HER IN GERMANY?
|Mrs. Teresa R. Kemp |
Atlanta's Quilt Lady