Africans & African-American Participation
in the American Revolutionary War
in the American Revolutionary War
Here are resources found in book, Keeper of the Fire: An Igbo Metalsmith From Awka!
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|1784 Muster Rolls of Birchtown, Canada|
The two men had formed a true friendship and Koscuiszko invited “Grippy” to join him in Poland but Hull did not want to leave his home. He returned to Stockbridge and worked as a butler to make money to buy land for a farm.He married Jane Darby a runaway slave when he purchased his own homestead. Agrippa hired a lawyer to assist Jane and Agrippa in properly securing her liberty. He is listed as becoming the largest black landholder in Stockbridge, where he resided following the war.
His friend Koscuiszko, General (Tadeusz) Thaddeus Koscuiszko, a young Polish nobleman), would visit him whenever he came to America and officers also wrote about Agrippa in his memoirs. When Hull requested his pension he was told he needed to prove his honorable military service before he would be approved for payments. With no way to duplicate papers in that time period, he agreed to send his papers only if they would promise to return them to him, since General George Washington signed his service papers and they mean more to him than getting the pension. Hull died in 1848, at almost 89 years old.
Thirty-seven Africans from Berkshire County, MA fought in the war for independence. Agrippa Hulls being the most famous, this portrait hangs in the Stockbridge, Massachusetts Public Library to this day.
PATRIOT AUSTIN DABNEY
Austin Dabney was sent to war by his owner who did not want to fight to serve as a soldier in the Revolutionary war to serve in his place. Dabney was one of the few black in the South allowed to man heavy guns. Most southern blacks were prohibited from bearing arms of any kind for fear of revolts and killings of their masters. He was a member of an artillery in the Georgia Corps and fought under Colonel Elijah Clark in the battles of Cow pens in South Carolina. There the patriots killed, wounded or captured almost all of the British and Tory Soldiers.
Dabney was said to be the only black soldier at the Battle of Kettle Creek. He was seriously wounded by a rifle ball in his hip and a soldier took him to his nearby farmhouse. Dabney was nursed back to health and never forgot the kindness of Giles Harris. Freed for fighting by his master, after the war, he went to work for Harris.
Though it was years before his heroic service in the American Revolutionary War was recognized. In 1821, The Georgia Legislature gave him a one-hundred-twelve acre farm. He quickly formed friendships with his wealthy neighbors and became the owner of many fine horses. He received a pension for his military service and being a land holder helped. He is buried in the Harris family Cemetery (it is believed). The Pulaski Georgia Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) in 1977, included Austin Dabney on a monument in Griffin Memorial Park.
James Armistead (1760-1832) was born in Virginia, an African enslaved to the owner whose last name he took. In 1781, when James was twenty-one years old he heard the Marquis de Lafayette, a French volunteer for the Patriots was in need of men to spy on the British. When James asked his master could he go during the siege of Richmond to volunteer, William Armistead, his owner agree.
Lafayette was born 1757, in the town of Chavaniac, to a wealthy landowning family, living in southern central France (In the province of Auvergne). Young and wanting adventure, he was commissioned as an officer at age 13 years old. He wanted to follow his family’s martial tradition. Convinced that the American Patriot’s cause in the revolutionary war was noble, he came to the New World seeking glory in it. The 19-year-old was made a major general in the Continental Army, though he initially wasn’t given a fight force to command.
James (former slave) was described as brave, smart and knew the area well. He was just what Lafayette needed since the British were offering freedom to slaves who joined their side no one would suspect James of being a Patriot spy. It was the when Armistead arrived in the British cap to offer his services as a guide and body servant in exchange for his freedom at the end of the American Revolutionary War.Three years following the end of the American Revolution Lafayette’s praise and written certificate of Armistead’s participation was sent to the Virginia General Assembly of Virginia. Armistead asked his master be paid for him and he be awarded freedom and the Assembly agreed. He was recognized a war veteran but not considered an American citizen! Because of his service, when he was in his sixties, Armistead did receive a military pension.
|Letter signed by George Washington|
Peter Salem was born in 1750, a slave in Framingham, Massachusetts who was first owned by New England Army Captain Jeremiah Belknap. Later, Salem was sold to Major Lawson Buckminster, who gave him his freedom to enlist and fight in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War on the side of the Patriots.
He fought in the battle of Concord April 19, 1775 and the battle of Lexington, Mass. and he also enlisted on April 26, in Captain Drury's company of Colonel John Nixon's 6th Massachusetts Regiment. Salem fought at Bunker Hill with Barzillai Lew, Salem Poor, Titus Coburn, Alexander Ames, Cato Howe, and Seymour Burr, freed blacks and many others. When Salem was fighting at Bunker Hill he became a Revolutionary War hero, when he shot and killed British Major John Pitcairn. The Patriot officer ordered a retreat but Salem refused and reloaded and fired again and kept firing. To honor him Salem’s French Charleville musket, he used in battle is now displayed at the Bunker Hill Monument in Massachusetts.
He was presented proudly by white solders to General George Washington, as the soldier who killed the commanding British officer at the Battle of Bunker Hill. It was reported that he also served bravely at the battles of Stoney Point and the Battle of Saratoga.
Native Americans were forced on to reservations by the mid-17th century. The English immigrants had forced any remaining in the area, on to reservations located north of the York River. Freed slaves of African heritage, by working and living in close proximity, assimilated into the growing population of European colonists. Over the following decades, white indentured servant women and men; African men and women; and few Native American Indians married and created free mixed-race populations before the American Revolution. Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1999-2005.
IRON WORKERS - “African men with iron making skills were imported to the Chesapeake to work as blacksmiths on plantations and in the iron industry that, by the early 18th century, had begun to develop in Colonial America. Iron workers were an elite group in West and West Central Africa, (de Barrios 2000:148; Barnes and Ben-Amos 1989). In West Africa, the rise of the Edo, Fon and a series of Yoruba kingdoms between 1400 and 1700, owed their political dominance to heavily equipped armies, using a highly developed iron technology. Blacksmiths are attributed central roles in the mythical origins of numerous West Central African and West African peoples.
The first southern iron works was established in the Chesapeake. Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant Governor Virginia erected the South’s first successful iron works around 1718. There were at least 65 iron works in the region employing as many as 4,500 slaves. By 1775, the American colonies were the world’s third largest producer of iron. Built largely on slave labor, slavery played a crucial role in the growth and development of the industry. By the 1750s, enslaved men performed most of the skilled and manual labor. The most skilled African American artisans worked independently in positions of authority like Abraham and Bill, who in the 1760s, helped manage the Snowden iron furnace in Anne Arundel (Kulikoff 1986:413). Forges and furnaces employed between thirty and fifty slaves (Lewis 1974:242–243). Principio Iron works owned slaves and livestock. When the British confiscated Principio Iron works at the end of the American Revolution, it had been in gradual decline for thirty years, nevertheless it listed 136 slaves among its property.”
Patriot Crispus Attucks
|Crispus Attucks – (1723-March 5, 1770) the first martyr of the American Revolution between the American colonists and Great Britain, was a former slave named Crispus Attucks. A martyr is a person willing to give his life for the cause of freedom. Not a lot is documented of Crispus’s early life but he was the son of an African father and a “Natick”, Nantucket Indian mother. Some accounts said he was of Wampanoag and African descent. Attucks was a descendant of John Attucks, of Massachusetts who was hanged during King Philip's War. He was enslaved in his adult life and always longed to be free. Framingham had a small African community since 1716. He was known as a rope maker and a first rate trader (seller and buyer) of cattle and horses. Unable to make money to purchase his freedom and finding no other recourse Crispus finally ran away.|
The United States Treasury released "The Black Revolutionary War Patriots Silver Dollar featuring Crispus Attucks' image on the reverse side in 1998. Funds from sales of the coin were intended for a proposed Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial in Washington, D.C.
Patriot Salem Poor unlike many who fought he was born free in Massachusetts. Married young he lived on his farm with his wife. He had to make a decision like many others on who side should he take in the impending war. He heard talk of breaking away from England daily and finally decided he was going to side with independence! The battles were literally at the colonist door steps and when the war came to Lexington and Concord, Poor enlisted in the Patriot army. Like many other Africans he was known for a steady hand and eye, meaning he was not afraid in battle. He was not trembling and shaking or shooting with his eyes closed.
In the battle at the Siege of Charleston Massachusetts, Poor killed Lieutenant Colonel James Abercrombie, an important British officer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. The Patriots were able to hold their positions until they ran out of ammo. Salem Poor was praised by his Patriot officers in correspondence to the Massachusetts General Court.
“Poor behaved like an experienced soldier in his gallant and brave action as he fought in Captain Ames Fry’s regiment” Despite the intentions of the petition history has not recorded if Poor was rewarded by the court. He remained in the army for many years and fought in the battles of White Plains, New York and survived the harsh winter conditions at Valley Forge. In 1975, Salem Poor’s likeness appeared on a United States commemorative postage stamp.
“The author Samuel Swett, writing in 1818, reported, "Among the foremost of the [British] leaders was the gallant Maj. Pitcairn, who exultingly cried 'the day is ours,' when Salem, a black soldier, and a number of others, shot him through and he fell.... [A] contribution was made in the Army for Salem and he was presented to Washington as having slain Pitcairn" (p. 75). The artist John Trumbull's celebrated 1786 painting The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill shows a black soldier thought to be Salem, holding a flintlock musket as Pitcairn falls, and in 1968 that detail was reproduced in a U.S. postage stamp commemorating Trumbull and included in the Black Heritage Stamp Issues.”
|Book of Negroes|
Book of Negroes: There were 3 copies of this handwritten, Book of Negroes, Black Loyalist passengers leaving New York on British ships in 1783. It list the names of Africans, their status (free or slave), physical description, and for some, the former owner’s name and last known place of residence. One in America at the National Archives Washington, DC; one at the Public Records Office in Kew, England and one in Nova Scotia Archives in Halifax, Canada. More information on these books made by British and American inspectors. This above book’s digital information can be found at:
Patriot Oliver Cromwell
Patriot Prince Whipple (1750-1796), was one of the African aristocrats who sent their children worldwide for education and the narrative of Prince Whipple was one of theses. He was home in Ambou, Ghana, with his family until he was ten years old and his father sent him with a cousin to America to follow in his older brother’s footsteps of being educated in the American colonies.
Like many others Prince was promised his freedom for fighting in the Revolutionary War, but it wasn’t granted. Free men born in Africa and enslaved Africans joined together to confront the New Hampshire legislature and were finally granted their freedoms. Once free, he worked serving as a master of ceremonies and gave speeches at formal occasions and gathering. According to the Portsmouth, New Hampshire Town Records, General Whipple granted Prince Whipple the rights of a freeman on 22 Feb. 1781, Prince's wedding day. He was legally manumitted by Gen. William Whipple on 26 Feb. 1784. He married a woman named Dinah, also free in his town. They had children and continued to live in their own 2 story home (still standing as of 2012) near the Moffat mansion. Prince Whipple died leaving a widow and several children when he was only in his thirties. 125 years after the Revolutionary War had ended veterans groups from the New Hampshire area dedicated a marker to the bravery of Prince Whipple in North Cemetery.
This Georgia graveyard is the resting place for a diverse population: artisans, craftsmen, elected officials, sea captains, merchants, doctors, lawyers, and members of Provincial Councils, State and Continental Congresses. The listing of 1793, 1794 and 1798 yellow fever victims is lengthy. Over 235 men, of 672, Third Church members who served in the Revolutionary War are buried here.
For Further Reading on American Revolution
& American Revolution Website Resources:
Keeper of the Fire: An Igbo Metalsmith From Awka
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AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR
NELL, William C. Colored Patriots of the American Revolution. Boston, MA: R. F. Wallcut. 1855.
Black Loyalist References:
HODGES, Graham Russell. The Black Loyalists Directory, New York, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996.
ROBERTSON, Marion. King's Bounty: A History of Early Shelburne Nova Scotia Halifax NS, Nova Scotia Museum Press, 1983.
WALKER, James W. St. G. The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press, 1992.
Massachusetts Historical Society: www.masshist.org
The New England Historic Genealogical Society: www.americanancestors.org
KAPLAN, Sidney. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution 1770-1800, Washington DC, New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1973.
WINKS, Robin W. The Blacks in Canada: A History (2nd Ed.), Montreal & Kingston, McGill-Queens University Press, 1997.
BURNSIDE, Madeline & Rosemarie Robotham, Spirits of the Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century, New York NY, Simon & Schuster Editions, 1997.
JOURNEYS to Freedom: Enslaved efforts to escape http://freedomcenter.org/enabling-freedom/journey-to-freedom
MACDONALD, James S., "Memoir of Governor John Parr", Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society Volume XIV, Halifax NS, Nova Scotia Printing Company, 1910, Pp. 41-78.
Francis Marion - Francis Marion Trails: http://www.francismariontrail.com/ (He had freed and slave black in his units)
MCKERROW, P.E. Edited by Frank Stanley Boyd, A Brief History of the Coloured Baptists of Nova Scotia 1783-1895, Halifax NS, Afro-Nova Scotian Enterprises, 1975.
MONTICELLO Plantation: Health & Slave Medicine
SMITH, T. Watson, "The Slave in Canada", Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society for the Years 1896-1898 Volume X, Halifax NS, Nova Scotia Printing Company, 1899.
PEOPLE WHO ASSISTED LOYALIST CANADIAN RESEARCH
Niven, Laird Laird has been an invaluable resource, and helped supply some of the original documents for transcription. Mr. Niven also was the archaeologist who investigated the various sites in the Birchtown area.
Bloomfield, Gladstone Mr. Bloomfield has been of great assistance in researching the military history of the Black Loyalists. His suggestions and references have helped to correct some common misconceptions, and we are greatly indebted to his assistance.
DUNNSMORE’S ETHIOPIAN REGIMENT
KAPLAN, Sidney and Kaplan, Emma N. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolutionary. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. P. 490. 1989.
QUARLES, Benjamin. The Negro in the American Revolution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, pg. 19. 1966.
BATTLE OF COWPENS:
HOURIHAN, William J. (Winter 1998). "Historical Perspective: The Cowpens Staff Ride: A Study in Leadership". The Army Chaplaincy. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
MONCURE, Lieutenant Colonel John (1996). "The Cowpens Staff Ride and Battlefield Tour". Command and General Staff College: Combined Arms Research Library. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
MONTROSS, Lynn (April 1956). "America's Most Imitated Battle." American Heritage, Vol. 7, No. 3 (April 1956), Pp. 35-37, 100-101.
PARKER, John W. "Historical Record of the Seventeenth Regiment of Light Dragoons, Lancers: Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in 1759 and of Its Subsequent Services to 1841". Replications Company. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
WEBB, Jonathan (2009). "Battle of Cowpens Animated Battle Map". The Art of Battle. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
WITHROW, Scott (2005). "The Battle of Cowpens". U.S. Department of the Interior: National Park Service: Cowpens National Battlefield South Carolina.
CAGNEY, James (2010). "Animated History of the Battle of Cowpens". HistoryAnimated.com. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
AGRIPPA HULL INFORMATION:
Teaching African-American Heritage in the Upper Housatonic Valley: https://mcla.digication.com/AAHT/Agrippa_Hull1
One of my Strother Patriot Revolutionary Strother family members also fought at Cowpens.
Websites on Peter Salem and other Blacks in Wars http://www.celebrateboston.com/biography/peter-salem.htm
CRISPUS ATTUCKS INFO:
BOLSTER, Jeffrey W. Black Jacks: African-American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
PARR, James L. & Swope, Kevin A. Framingham: Legends and Lore. The History Press, 2009.
MANDELL, Daniel. Tribe, Race, History: Native Americans in Southern New England, 1780-1880 Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.
MANDELL, Daniel. Behind the Frontier: Indians in Eighteenth-Century Eastern Massachusetts. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
SILVERMAN, David J. Faith and Boundaries: Colonists, Christianity, and Community among the Wampanoag Indians of Martha's Vineyard, 1600-1871 Cambridge University Press, 2005.
ASANTE, Molefi Kete. 100 Greatest African-Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. 2002.
NEYLAND, James. Crispus Attucks, Patriot. Holloway House. 1995.
LIBRARY of Congress Exhibit Attucks: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr046.html
PETER SALEM’S INFO:
Forgotten Patriots--African-American and Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War (2008), which was published by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Peter Salem’s service was discussed in many more general reference books on African-Americans in American history, including:
APTHEKER, Herbert (Ed.) A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. 1962.
WOODSON, Carter G. The Negro in Our History 1922, rev. ed. 1962);
QUARLES, Benjamin and Fishel, Leslie H. Jr. The Black American. 1970.
WAKIN, Edward. Black Fighting Men in U.S. History. 1971.
AMERICAN National Biography Online: http://www.anb.org/articles/06/06-00893.html
RELATED INFO WEBSITES-
ABOLITIONIST named in this book visit: www.biography.com/people/
AFRICAN-American History: www.aaregistry.com/African_American_history/412/lewistempleinventor10
AFRICAN Names Database - Many people do not realize that the names of the people taken were in many cases recorded. This is where your family’s oral history may be useful. If you have a name, you can check the African Names Database to see if it was included. In many African cultures the son is named after his father, or something similar, often contains part of the father’s name (My son on the right hand, my son on the hill) etc.
“Between 2008 and May 2012 Voyages offered access to an African Names Database that identified over 67,000 Africans removed from slave ships in the abolition era, including their names, age, gender, stature, and place of embarkation. While these data have been incorporated into the African-Origins site the latter does not include stature data. The African Names Database has now been made available at the website: http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/resources/slaves.faces in csv format.
AMERICAN National Biography Online: http://www.anb.org/articles/06/06-00893.html
ARCHAEOLOGY News Network:
ARCHIVO Colombia – English translation from the Nat. Archives of Col: www.archivogeneral.gov.co/
Slave and Free People of Color Baptismal Records in the Archiveshttp://archives.arch-no.org/sfpc.php
ART OF A CONTIENENT: www.thefreelibrary.com
This on-line catalogue is the record for posterity of the Royal Academy's exhibition of the same name held in London from October 4th, 1995 to January 21, 1996. The Africa exhibition may justifiably be called the largest exposition of African arts and antiquities yet mounted in Great Britain, with all of the exhibits figured in the book as colour plates of a very high standard of reproduction.
BEDFORD Historical Society: www.bedfordmahistory.org
BLACK History Pages: www.blackhistorypages.net
BLACK Inventors On-line Museum: blackinventor.com
BLACK Inventory: www.blackinventor.com
BRITISH Museum: The. Benin: An African Kingdom: www.britishmuseum.org/PDF/british_museum_benin_art.pdf
BRITISH Museum: Benin Plaque: the Oba with Europeans. BBC 2012. Retrieved From:
BRITISH National Archives: www.nationalarchives.gov.uk
“The duty books recorded all departures to Africa from every British port in the Atlantic world between 1698 and 1712. They were a direct result of the 1698 Act that destroyed the Royal African Company’s monopoly by allowing all British investors access to the slave trade on payment of a duty worth ten percent of the outgoing cargo. They may be found in the British National Archives, series T70, Vols. 349-358.”
CHC Library and Archives - the City of Cambridge: www2.cambridgema.gov/historic/library.html
CHESTER County Historical Society – Chester, SC: http://chesterschistory.org/
CHICKASAW Nation: www.chickasaw.net
CHINESE Slavery in America by Charles Frederick Holder: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25118876?seq=2
CHOCTAW Nation: www.choctawnation.com/
COASTAL Georgia Historical Society - Saint Simons, GA: www.saintsimonslighthouse.org/about.html
CUBAN GENEAOLOGY – Historias de Familias Cubanas
If you haven't already done so, the first place to look for Cuban family trees is the 9-volume Historia de Familias Cubanas by the noted Cuban genealogist Francisco Javier de Santa Cruz y Maillen, Count of Jaruco.
For a list of the surname chapter headings of this work and information on how to get copies of the full text of the entries click the above link.
Enciclopedia Heráldica y Genealógica Hispano-AmericanaThe second place to look for Cuban family trees is the 88-volume Enciclopedia Heráldica y Genealógica Hispano-Americana by the Spanish genealogists Alberto and Arturo Garcia Carraffa. These cover mostly names starting with the letters A-U only, since the authors both died before completing the Encyclopedia. There are, however, some names listed that start with the letters V-Z.
An on-line interactive index to the surnames appearing in this work has been prepared by the US Library of Congress and is available by clicking on the following Index. The Index also lists names appearing in the Mogrobejo work described below and also lists various libraries in the United States that have the Carraffa Encyclopedia in their collection.
A printed index to the surname headings of the Carraffa Encyclopedia appears in the 1966 book Hispanic Surnames and Family History by Lyman D. Platt (ISBN: 0-8063-1480-X) which you can get from your local library on interlibrary loan or purchase in many genealogical book stores.
Click on the link at the head of this Section for full details on the Carraffa Encyclopedia and information on where to get copies of the actual chapter entries.
These books, by the contemporary basque genealogist and publisher Endika de Mogrobejo, continue the Carraffa Encyclopedia starting alphabetically with the surname "Urriza". To date 12 volumes have been announced, although only the first 6 volumes seem to be currently available. Click on the above link for the alphabetic range of surnames covered in each volume. The US Library of Congress on-line interactive Index to the Carraffa Encyclopedia described previously also includes the surnames appearing in the first 6 volumes of this work. The entries corresponding to the Endika de Mogrobejo work are indicated by volume numbers preceded by an "E".
These books can be obtained on interlibrary loan, purchased directly from Spain via the Internet, or purchased at the Ediciones Universal bookstore in Miami. Be warned that the books are large in size, leather bound and rather expensive.
DETROIT Historical Society: http://detroithistorical.org/learn/encyclopedia-of-detroit/underground-railroad
DNA Testing: Family Tree DNA: www.familytreedna.com
ERI Kingdom Igboland Nigeria: www.erikingdom.com/
ENCYCLOPEDIA Britannic: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/414840/Nigeria
GALLERY Ezakwantu: Central and Southern African Tribal Art: www.ezakwantu.com/
HANDLER, Jerome and Michael Tuite (Photo images were compiled) and sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library. www.slaveryimages.org
HUDSON Historical Society - Hudson MA: hudsonhistoricalsociety.org
INTERNATIONAL Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM): www.iccrom.org/
IGBO Council of Europe: www.igbocouncilofeurope.org/igbo-community/
IGBO Development Assoc. of British Columbia: http://www.ndigbo.net/
IGBO language website: www.Igbo911.com
IGBO Network: www.igbonetwork.com
INTERNATIONAL Council of Museum (ICOM):
INTERNATIONAL Society of Genetic Genealogy’s (ISOGG) Success: Stories: www.isogg.org/successstories.htm
JEWISH Daily Torah Study: www.Chabad.org
JEWISH Igbo website: www.igboisrael.com/
JUDICA for Books, and holiday information: www.artscroll.com
KENTUCKY African-American Slave Database (Notable): Slave Injury and Death Reimbursement & Insurance: http://nkaa.uky.edu/subject.php?sub_id=170
LEXINGTON Historical Society: www.lexingtonhistory.org
LIBRARY of Congress:
· Small Picture Collection
· American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of
· Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera.
MURRAY, Daniel A. P. Pamphlet Collection Rare Book and Special Collections Division, African-American Pamphlet Collection. Washington DC: Library of Congress.
MURRAY, K.C. 1940. A Bronze Bell from Onitsha Province, Nigeria Photo. Onicha, Alaigbo
MUSCOGEE (Creek) Nation: www.muscogeenation-nsn.gov
NAIRALAND Forum: http://www.nairaland.com/
NIGERIAN Nri Kingdom: www.nrikingdom.com
OLD Colony Historical Society: www.oldcolonyhistoricalsociety.org
RADIO Africa – www.radioafrica.com.au
“Radio Africa offers hours of tracks including field recordings from remote villages, voices of political protest, and songs from emerging Afro-pop artists and is a collaboration between Smithsonian Folkways and the National Museum of African Art.” http://africa.si.edu/wp-content/themes/NMAfA/scripts/radio_africa/index.html
SCITUATE Historical Society: scituatehistoricalsociety.org
SLAVE VOYAGES DATABASE-www.slavevoyages.org The Voyages Database also contains an African Names Database.
SPANISH Texas - Blacks in Colonial Spanish Texas: http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/pkb07
Systematics Research Group in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology: www.scorpion.amnh.org/
SEMINOLE Indian Nation: www.seminolenation-indianterritory.org/
SEMINOLE Nation of Oklahoma: www.sno-nsn.gov
SOUTH Carolina Historical Society: www.southcarolinahistoricalsociety.org
African-American Historical Alliance - Charleston
Boonesborough Historical Society-Abbeville and Anderson counties - especially Donalds, Due West, and Honea Path
Center for Heirs' Property Preservation - educational and legal services for owners of heir’s property in the Lowcountry
Chicora Foundation - archaeological and historical research, cultural resource surveys, site assessments
Citizens for Historic Preservation - Fort Mill
Confederate Heritage Trust - Charleston
Daughters of the American Revolution - SC Society - DAR
– Ann Pamela Cuningham Chapter - Columbia
– Fort Sullivan Chapter - Charleston
– General Marion's Brigade Chapter - Moncks Corner
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